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Acoustic Phonetics: transmission of sounds
Affix: a morpheme that is attached to a root or a stem/base
Allomorphs: variants of a morpheme (the meaning remains the same, but it varies in sound
Allophones: variants of a phoneme, e.g. bright and dark /l/
Antonyms: word pairs that are opposite in meaning ("hot" and "cold", for instance)
Auditory Phonetics: perception of sounds
Articulatory Phonetics: Production of sounds
Beowulf: an epic poem from around 700AD, the most prominent literature in Old English
Bound morphemes: morphemes, that only occur in combination with free morphemes (such as the affixes "-ing", or "un-" )
Canterbury Tales: collection of storieswritten by Geoffrey Chaucer in the 14th century, the most famous work in Middle English
Centum-Satem division: a division within the Indo-European language community that is related to the development of the k-sound. The terms themselves derive from the respective representation for the number “100” in Latin and in Avestic.
Co-hyponym: hyponyms of the same superordinate term
Compounding: creating new words by putting two (or more) stems together (such as "haircut" - hair + cut)
Derivation: theprocess of adding a morpheme, involving the change into another syntactical category
Etymology: study of the history of words
Free morphemes: morphemes that can stand alone (such as "green" or "sand"
Hyperonym: superordinate term
Hyponym: subordinate term
Indo-European: language believed to had been spoken by the ancestors of the Indo-Europeans. Linguists started in the 19th century to analyze the “original” Indo-European language, and it is believed, that this Proto-Indo-European language started to split up into different varieties in the 3rd millennium BC. The Indo-European language community is with approximately 900 million speakers one of the biggest language families (cf. König 1978, 37). The term “Indo-German” is a nominal composition taken out of the borders of this speech community: on the one hand, the Germanic tribes and on the other hand, the Indian tribes (or languages).
Inflection: process of marking a word to reflect grammatical information
IPA: International Phonetic Alphabet. The IPA is a system of phonetic transcription. It is based on the Latin alphabet and can be used for the transcription of the representation of sounds.
Grammatical morpheme:The smallest unit in the grammar of a language which has a grammatical meaning, hence grammatical morphemes are also called structural morphemes.It is a closed set with a limited number, but it is important to differentiate between free and bound grammatical morphemes. Free morphemes are for instance prepositions, conjunctions or auxiliary, whereas bound morphemes are suffixes and affixes (in the context of word formation and inflection).
Grapheme: visual encoding of words. A grapheme can be for instance the letter of our Latin alphabet, or Chinese characters. In written English, several graphemes might represent a single phoneme (since English has a non-phonemic orthography).
Grimm’s Law: sound shift that the Germanic languages underwent, eventually distinguishing them from the other Indo-European languages. Grimm’s law includes the deaspiration of voiced stops, the devoicing of voiced stops and the fricatisation of voiceless stops.
High German Sound Shift: sound shift that the German language underwent in the 4th and 5th century AD, distuingishing the German language from other Germanic languages. This shift included the fricatisation and affricatisation of voiceless stops, and devoicing of voiced stops.
Icon: sign with a relationship of similarity with their meaning
Index: sign with a relationship of physical proximity with their meaning
Lexical morpheme: The smallest unit in the grammar of a language which has a lexical meaning (e.g. boy, girl, car) .It is also called content morpheme or root. Moreover, there is an open set of them, which means that the number is not limited.
Morpheme: the smallest meaningful unit in the grammar of a language
Morphology: the study of the structure and content of word forms.
Orthography: The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific writing system to write the language
Paradigmatic relations: substitutional or oppositional relationships a linguistic unit has with other units, such as the relationship between (n) in "not" and other sounds that could be substituted for it in the same context, like (t) and (p).
Phoneme: the smallest meaning/word distinguishing unit of speech.
Phonetics: study of sounds (acoustic phonetics, articulatory phonetics and auditory phonetics)
Phonetic Cycle: the relations between the three fields of phonetics (acoustic, auditory and articulatory phonetics)
Phonology: study of sounds as part of a speech system
Pierce, Charles: Charles Pierce (1839-1914) was an American logician, mathematician, philosopher, and scientist and one of the first philosophers in the 19th century who dealt with semantics and pragmatics, distinguished between syntax, pragmatics and semantics.
Poetic function: Within pragmatics, the poetic function is a reflexive aspect, for instance, if a text (such as a poem-hence the name) refers back to itself. In other words, this is the reflexivity of a text.
Praat: software transforming speech sounds into visual models
Pragmatics: pragmatics deals with signs in connection to their interpreters, in contrast to semantics, a field dealing with signs and their interpretation
Prefix: an affix, preceding morphemes
Root: the primary lexical unit of a word, which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents.
Source filter model: Air is released form the lungs over to the vocal cords. Thus, the vocal cords are the source of speech sounds. Then, the air passes the vocal tract, where the facilities in our mouth (glottis, tongue, etc… ) have the function of a filter. Each sound involves the modification of air with the help of the respective articulatory organs
Stem: consists of a lexical morpheme and allows derivational but not inflectional affixes
Suffix: an affix placed at the ending of a root, or a stem/base
Syllable: unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. Basic syllable structure in English: CCCVVCCC
Symbol: sign with an arbitrary relationship with their meaning
Syntagmatic relations: relationship between linguistic units in a construction or sequence, as between the (n) and adjacent sounds in "not", "ant", and "ton"
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