Startseite
    Learner's Diary
    References
    Glossary
  Archiv
  Gästebuch
  Kontakt
 


 

Webnews



http://myblog.de/mikistanojevic

Gratis bloggen bei
myblog.de





 
Learner's Diary 12.12.2007

Summary:

In the first part of this lecture, we revised paradimatic and syntagmatic relations, as well as syntax. In second part, we began to discuss semantics.

At the beginning, the tutors stated that some students apparently did not comprehend the connection between paradigmatic and syntagmatic relations. Thus, Mr. Gibbon explained to us again the basic facts concerning these topics, taking the transport system as an example: Cars, bicycles, trams and trains are all classes of vehicles; they only have different kinds of engines, but there functions still remain the same. Hence, the relations between these vehicles are paradigmatic. On the other hand, the syntagmatic relations between these items are the particular relations between roads, traffic lights, i.e. the whole structure of the transport system, showing that the syntagmatic relations are larger structures composed of smaller items.

Then, Mr Gibbon ran quickly through syntax again, explaining to us some facts about glue categories such as conjunctions or interjections. While interjections put different parts of dialogues together (“Du wolltest es ja wohl doch machen” ), conjunctions such as “and” brings two items of the same category together.

Moreover, we talked about the dual category, which English used to have. However, there are only a few words distinguishing dual and plural number, such as “both” or “either”, for instance.
In the second part of the lecture, we discussed semantics. In terms of semantics, we have to distinguish between the sense (Sinn) of a word and the reference (Bedeutung)/ denotation of a word. The term sense describes the meaning of the word in the context itself, or what it means when we hear the word. The term reference, on the other hand, describes the word referring to something real. Mr. Gibbon in this context gave the example of the planet Venus: there are several other terms for Venus, including for instance “evening star”, “evening star” or “second planet from the sun”. While the senses of these expressions are different, the reference is the same.

The first person making the distinction between sense and meaning was the German mathematician and philosopher Gottlob Frege in the late 19th century. Ludwig Wittgenstein later on, staring 1915 until just before 1940, developed precise notions of meaning.

The best-known contemporary linguist, Noam Chomsky, worked on semantics, too. He distinguishes the between intern and extern language, i.e. between competence (implicit knowledge of a language) and performance (actual use of a language in concrete situations).

Finally, we talked about the three semantic sign types that were introduced by Charles S. Pierce: According to him, sign types can be divided into indices (signs with a relationship of physical proximity with their meaning), icons (sign with a relationship of similarity with their meaning) and symbols (signs with an arbitrary relationship with their meaning).

Homework:

Analyse these signs:

I.
1)      border -shares paradigmatic relations with the sign
2)      background – also shares paradigmatic relations with the sign
3)      the word “keep” : symbol - no similarity to meaning
4)      the word “right” : symbol - no similarity to meaning
5)      arrow: index – relation of physical proximity of the sign and a particular arrow going into that direction

II.
1)      border
2)      background
3)      picture: icon – shows a similarity, which is related to the meaning

II.
1)      border
2)      background
3)      T: symbol

IV.
1)      border
2)      background
3)      P: symbolic

V.
1)      border
2)      background
3)      the word “STOP”: symbol

VI.
1)      border
2)      background
3)      arrow: index

VII.
1)      border
2)      background
3)      white line: symbol

VIII.
1)      border
2)      background
3)      reindeer: icon

IX.
1)      border
2)      background
3)      arrow: index, but since it also gives you a certain shape, it also has iconic properties

X.
1)      border
2)      background
3)      the word “right”: symbol
4)      the word “turn”: symbol
5)      the word “only”: symbol

XI.
1)      border
2)      background
3)      arrow: index, but since it also gives you a certain shape, it also has iconic properties

XII.
1)      border
2)      background
3)      the word “Yield”: symbol

XII.
1)      border
2)      background
3)      bicycle: icon
4)      the word “bike”: symbol
5)      the word “route”: symbol
6)      arrow: index

Evaluation:

Today's lecture gave us a good overview about semantics and the different theories and approaches concerning semantics (Chomsky's or de Saussure's approaches, for example). Moreover, it was good that Dr. Gibbon revised the basic facts concerning syntagmatic and pragmatic relations again, because sometimes it was rather difficult to state whether a relation was syntagmatic or paradigmatic. Unfortunately, today's homework was also very difficult, since it was not easy to state if a sign was an icon, a symbol or an index.

18.12.07 19:18
 


bisher 0 Kommentar(e)     TrackBack-URL

Name:
Email:
Website:
E-Mail bei weiteren Kommentaren
Informationen speichern (Cookie)



 Smileys einfügen



Verantwortlich für die Inhalte ist der Autor. Dein kostenloses Blog bei myblog.de! Datenschutzerklärung
Werbung